A two-vertex theorem for normal tilings
Gábor Domokos, Ákos G. Horváth, Krisztina Regős
Abstract: We regard a smooth, 𝑑=2-dimensional manifold ℳ and its normal tiling M, the cells of which may have non-smooth or smooth vertices (at the latter, two edges meet at 180 degrees.) We denote the average number (per cell) of non-smooth vertices by 𝑣¯⋆ and we prove that if M is periodic then 𝑣¯⋆≥2. We show the same result for the monohedral case by an entirely different argument. Our theory also makes a closely related prediction for non-periodic tilings. In 3 dimensions we show a monohedral construction with 𝑣¯⋆=0.
Mono-unstable polyhedra with point masses have at least 8 vertices
Sándor Bozóki, Gábor Domokos, Flórián Kovács, Krisztina Regős
Abstract: The monostatic property of convex polyhedra (i.e., the property of having just one stable or unstable static equilibrium point) has been in the focus of research ever since Conway and Guy (1969) published the proof of the existence of the first such object, followed by the constructions of Bezdek (2011) and Reshetov (2014). These examples establish
as the respective upper bounds for the minimal number of faces and vertices for a homogeneous mono-stable polyhedron. By proving that no mono-stable homogeneous tetrahedron existed, Conway and Guy (1969) established for the same problem the lower bounds for the number of faces and vertices as
and the same lower bounds were also established for the mono-unstable case (Domokos et al., 2020b). It is also clear that the
bounds also apply for convex, homogeneous point sets with unit masses at each point (also called polyhedral 0-skeletons) and they are also valid for mono-monostatic polyhedra with exactly one stable and one unstable equilibrium point (both homogeneous and 0-skeletons). In this paper we draw on an unexpected source to extend the knowledge on mono-monostatic solids: we present an algorithm by which we improve the lower bound to
vertices on mono-unstable 0-skeletons. The problem is transformed into the (un)solvability of systems of polynomial inequalities, which is shown by convex optimization. Our algorithm appears to be less well suited to compute the lower bounds for mono-stability. We point out these difficulties in connection with the work of Dawson, Finbow and Mak (Dawson, 1985, Dawson et al., 1998, Dawson and Finbow, 2001) who explored the monostatic property of simplices in higher dimensions.
Curvature flows, scaling laws and the geometry of attrition under impacts
Gergő Pál, Gábor Domokos & Ferenc Kun
Abstract: Impact induced attrition processes are, beyond being essential models of industrial ore processing, broadly regarded as the key to decipher the provenance of sedimentary particles. Here we establish the first link between microscopic, particle-based models and the mean field theory for these processes. Based on realistic computer simulations of particle-wall collision sequences we first identify the well-known damage and fragmentation energy phases, then we show that the former is split into the abrasion phase with infinite sample lifetime (analogous to Sternberg’s Law) at finite asymptotic mass and the cleavage phase with finite sample lifetime, decreasing as a power law of the impact velocity (analogous to Basquin’s Law). This splitting establishes the link between mean field models (curvature-driven partial differential equations) and particle-based models: only in the abrasion phase does shape evolution emerging in the latter reproduce with startling accuracy the spatio-temporal patterns (two geometric phases) predicted by the former.
Plato’s cube and the natural geometry of fragmentation
G. Domokos, D.J. Jerolmack, F. Kun, J. Török
Abstract: Plato envisioned Earth’s building blocks as cubes, a shape rarely found in nature. The solar system is littered, however, with distorted polyhedra—shards of rock and ice produced by ubiquitous fragmentation. We apply the theory of convex mosaics to show that the average geometry of natural two-dimensional (2D) fragments, from mud cracks to Earth’s tectonic plates, has two attractors: “Platonic” quadrangles and “Voronoi” hexagons. In three dimensions (3D), the Platonic attractor is dominant: Remarkably, the average shape of natural rock fragments is cuboid. When viewed through the lens of convex mosaics, natural fragments are indeed geometric shadows of Plato’s forms. Simulations show that generic binary breakup drives all mosaics toward the Platonic attractor, explaining the ubiquity of cuboid averages. Deviations from binary fracture produce more exotic patterns that are genetically linked to the formative stress field. We compute the universal pattern generator establishing this link, for 2D and 3D fragmentation.
The article was followed by increased media attention. Here is a list of the international and national mentions of the MTA-BME Morphodynamics Research Group: Media mentions.
G. Domokos, F. Kovács, Z. Lángi, K. Regős and P.T. Varga, Balancing polyhedra, Ars Math. Contemp., accepted, arXiv:1810.05382 [math.MG]
Abstract: We define the mechanical complexity C(P) of a convex polyhedron P, interpreted as a homogeneous solid, as the difference between the total number of its faces, edges and vertices and the number of its static equilibria, and the mechanical complexity C(S,U) of primary equilibrium classes (S,U)E with S stable and U unstable equilibria as the infimum of the mechanical complexity of all polyhedra in that class. We prove that the mechanical complexity of a class (S,U)E with S,U>1 is the minimum of 2(f+v−S−U) over all polyhedral pairs (f,v), where a pair of integers is called a polyhedral pair if there is a convex polyhedron with f faces and v vertices. In particular, we prove that the mechanical complexity of a class (S,U)E is zero if, and only if there exists a convex polyhedron with S faces and U vertices. We also give asymptotically sharp bounds for the mechanical complexity of the monostatic classes (1,U)E and (S,1)E, and offer a complexity-dependent prize for the complexity of the Gömböc-class (1,1)E.
Article appeared in the High School Mathematics and Physics Journal (KOMAL) with the title: Equilibria of convex polyhedra (in Hungarian).
Authors: Gábor Domokos, Flórián Kovács, Zsolt Lángi, Krisztina Regős, Péter Tamás Varga
Shape evolution of ooids: a geometric model
András A. Sipos, Gábor Domokos, Douglas J. Jerolmack
Abstract: Striking shapes in nature have been documented to result from chemical precipitation — such as terraced hot springs and stromatolites — which often proceeds via surface-normal growth. Another studied class of objects is those whose shape evolves by physical abrasion — the primary example being river and beach pebbles — which results in shape-dependent surface erosion. While shapes may evolve in a self-similar manner, in neither growth nor erosion can a surface remain invariant. Here we investigate a rare and beautiful geophysical problem that combines both of these processes; the shape evolution of carbonate particles known as ooids. We hypothesize that mineral precipitation, and erosion due to wave-current transport, compete to give rise to novel and invariant geometric forms. We show that a planar (2D) mathematical model built on this premise predicts time-invariant (equilibrium) shapes that result from a balance between precipitation and abrasion. These model results produce nontrivial shapes that are consistent with mature ooids found in nature.
The paper Explaining the Elongated Shape of ‘Oumuamua by the Eikonal Abrasion Mode (Gábor Domokos, András Á. Sipos, Gyula M. Szabó, Péter L. Várkonyi) was followed by increased media attention. It was mentioned on both national and international websites such as newsweek.com, bbc.com, hirado.hu.
Frustrated packing in a granular system under geometrical confinement
Sára Lévay, David Fischer, Ralf Stannarius, Balázs Szabó, Tamás Börzsönyi and János Török
Abstract: Optimal packings of uniform spheres are solved problems in two and three dimensions. The main difference between them is that the two-dimensional ground state can be easily achieved by simple dynamical processes while in three dimensions, this is impossible due to the difference in the local and global optimal packings. In this paper we show experimentally and numerically that in 2 + ε dimensions, realized by a container which is in one dimension slightly wider than the spheres, the particles organize themselves in a triangular lattice, while touching either the front or rear side of the container. If these positions are denoted by up and down the packing problem can be mapped to a 1/2 spin system. At first it looks frustrated with spin-glass like configurations, but the system has a well defined ground state built up from isosceles triangles. When the system is agitated, it evolves very slowly towards the potential energy minimum through metastable states. We show that the dynamics is local and is driven by the optimization of the volumes of 7-particle configurations and by the vertical interaction between touching spheres.
A shape evolution model under affine transformations
Gábor Domokos, Zsolt Lángi, Márk Mezei
Abstract: In this note we describe a discrete dynamical system acting on the similarity classes of a plane convex body within the affine class of the body. We find invariant elements in all affine classes, and describe the orbits of bodies in some special classes. We point out applications with abrasion processes of pebble shapes.